Restoration and the building of copies of historic keyboard instruments are for me strongly connected with organological research into the original instruments.

For twenty years I have been studying the instruments by Bartolomeo Cristofori, especially his invention – the hammer action. During the last three years I also began to study the action in Gottfried Silbermann's pianos.

I have scanned my published articles to make them available in pdf format for download.

I have put the newer research of the last years into my talks. I would like to mention the following: .

the investigation of the ebony harpsichord by Bartolomeo Cristofori in connection with the building of the copy/reconstruction in 2009

summary of the investigation from 2009 - English (2 MB, PDF)

see also the talk "Cristofori and the Medici“, Clavecin en France, Conservatoire National Nizza, April 2011 - English (15 MB, PDF)

the careful investigation of the Cristofori piano from 1722 in Rome before building the copy in 2010

summary of the investigation of the piano in the Museo degli Strumenti Musicali in Rome - Italian (3,5 MB, PDF)

see also the following talk:

“Bartolomeo Cristofori e Giovanni Ferrini: la nascita del pianoforte e la convivenza con il clavicembalo”, Bologna 2013 - italiano (3 MB, PDF)

the investigation once again of the glue during the restoration of the Cristofori oval spinet from 1690 in 2012 with the discovery that this special instrument was not glued together with casein glue as published in 2001 but with normal animal glue

see page on the Restoration of the oval spinet by Bartolomeo Cristofori

the careful investigation of the false „Cristofori action“ from the Kraus collection and the incredible discovery that the last c note in the bass (plus correlated escapement jack) belongs to the action of the Cristofori piano from 1726 in Leipzig (Galleria dell'Accademia, Collezione del Conservatorio “Luigi Cherubini”, Gli Strumenti a corde – vol. II, authors: Giovanni Paolo Di Stefano e Gabriele Rossi Rognoni, Firenze 2014, S. 171-174 )

The hammer action from the Gatti-Kraus collection (article of catalogue, 3,74MB, PDF)

the investigation of the Gottfried Silbermann action and the comparison to the Cristofori action

see the following two talks:

„I pianoforti di Gottfried Silbermanns, strumenti amati da Federico il Grande, re di Prussia (1712 – 1786)" Conservatorio di Musica Milano, April 2014 - Italian (19 MB, PDF)

„The pianos by Bartolomeo Cristofori und Gottfried Silbermann – Two different worlds of sound produced by the same hammer action“ Rencontres harmoniques Lausanne/ Genève, November 2014 - English (16,50 MB, PDF)


  1. KERSTIN SCHWARZ, Vier erhaltene Hammerflügel der Gebrüder Johann Gottfried und Johann Wilhelm Gräbner und ihre Rolle in der deutschen Klavierbaugeschichte Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts. Michaelsteiner Konferenzberichte, Band 50, Michaelstein 1996, p. 88-110
    Download (1,72 MB, PDF)
  2. KERSTIN SCHWARZ, Bartolomeo Cristofori. Hammerfügel und Cembali im Vergleich, Scripta Artium No.2, Universität Leipzig, Leipzig 2000/ 2002
    Download (8,62 MB, PDF)
  3. KERSTIN SCHWARZ und TONY CHINNERY, The creation of a new instrument. The ‘oval spinet’ from a builder’s perspective, Bartolomeo Cristofori - La spinetta ovale del 1690, Ministero per i beni e le attività culturali, Soprindendenza speciale per il polo museale fiorentino, Sillabe 2002, p. 44-61
    Download (1,86 MB, PDF)
  4. KERSTIN SCHWARZ, The late Cristofori. Creativity with a common base. Matière et Musique. Labo 19. Antwerpen 2000, p. 63-87
    Download (1,38 MB, PDF)
  5. KERSTIN SCHWARZ, Historische Hammerflügel mit Cristofori-Mechanik. Anmerkungen zu Konstruktion und Klang, Instruments à claviers - expressivité et flexibilité sonore. Actes des Rencontres Internationales harmonique, Lausanne 2002, p. 33-42
    Download (2,25 MB, PDF)
  6. KERSTIN SCHWARZ, Strumenti musicali: restauro o copia? Musica e crisi sonora. Atti dei convegni Internazionali di Studi. Quaderni della rivista italiana di musicologia. Olschki editore, Firenze 2004, p. 89-95
    Download (750 KB, PDF)
  7. KERSTIN SCHWARZ, Die Hammerflügel Bartolomeo Cristoforis und Gottfried Silbermanns - zwei verschiedene Klangwelten trotz gleicher Mechanik. Zur Entwicklung des Klavierspiels von Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach bis Clara Schumann. Michaelsteiner Konferenzberichte, Augsburg 2017, S. 177-196